About eight million farmed salmon have suffocated in northern Norway over the past week as a result of persistent algae bloom, an industry body estimated on Thursday, a blight that some experts suggest has been aggravated by climate change.
Norway is a dominant producer of farmed salmon, and the economic impact of the bloom is significant.
A statement from the Norwegian Directorate of Fisheries estimated the amount of salmon lost at 11,600 metric tons, worth about 720 million kroner, or more than million. An industry group, the Norwegian Seafood Council, suggested the total could be much higher.
“Preliminary numbers point to eight million dead fish — corresponding to 40,000 metric tons of salmon that won’t reach markets,” Dag Sorli, a spokesman for the council, said in an email on Thursday. He put the value of the losses at 2.2 billion kroner.
That would still amount to less than 1 percent of the industry’s output last year, when Norway produced approximately 1.3 million metric tons of salmon, according to Mr. Sorli.
Nine salmon companies have been affected so far, in the regions of Troms and Nordland.
Aleksander Balteskard, a spokesman for Northern Lights Salmon and Sorrollnesfisk, two privately owned family companies that operate together in northern Norway, said in an email on Thursday that they had lost “about 80 to 90 percent of the salmon that we had this generation” — most of this year’s production and part of next year’s.
Marine algae, microscopic plant-like organisms that are a form of phytoplankton, are usually not noticeable in normal concentrations. But under certain circumstances — when currents slow and water warms, for example — the population of algae can explode. Some algae blooms are visible from space.
Though the algae bloom is a natural event, Mr. Balteskard said, it is rare for it to be as concentrated and as lethal as it is this year.
Peter Jones, a reader in environmental governance at University College London, said, “The blooms are being exacerbated.” He noted that an algae bloom had hit salmon farming in Scotland last month.
“It looks like the mortalities in Norway in the last few days have been almost as great as the mortalities in an entire year in Scotland,” he said, though he noted that Norway’s salmon farm industry is far larger than Scotland’s.
Salmon farms are at special risk from blooms.
“Plankton blooms like these happen naturally and the fish would swim away from them, but obviously farm salmon don’t have that option,” Mr. Jones said.
The phytoplankton stop the fish’s breathing, Lars-Johan Naustvoll, a biologist at Norway’s Institute of Marine Research, said by phone.
“The algae comes in contact with the gills — it has a chemical composition that affects the membranes of the cells in the gills and they are effectively destroyed — so the fish actually dies due to lack of oxygen,” he said.
Mr. Naustvoll was hesitant to blame climate change for the bloom, pointing out that Norway experienced a growth of similar magnitude in 1991. But he said warm temperatures were not helpful.
“The increase in temperature and higher stability of the water increases the production season of the phytoplankton,” he said, to the extent that it can now grow from February to December.
Mr. Jones, from University College London, said that it would be unwise to say with certainty that climate change had played a role in the outbreak, but that there was a significant probability.
“The mortalities were mostly in northern Norway, so you’re heading towards the Arctic Circle,” he said. “And we know that seas are warming particularly rapidly in the Arctic.”
Under Norwegian regulations, none of the suffocated fish can be sent to markets, according to Chris Guldberg, a spokesman for the seafood council. Instead, they are likely to be incinerated or sent to landfill, Mr. Jones said.
The bloom may not be over, the Norwegian authorities said on Thursday. “It is important to be aware of a possible spread north,” the fisheries directorate warned.
Apart from being vigilant, there is not much people can do about algae blooms.
“It’s not possible to stop it — we, as humans cannot stop it; bad weather conditions can break it off,” Mr. Naustvoll said.
But Mr. Jones said there was a broader lesson.
“The solution,” he said, “is to take it as another warning that climate change has a myriad of impacts.”B:
宝莲灯心水论坛11654“【渊】【哥】【哥】……”【妃】【卿】【被】【檀】【渊】【的】【举】【动】【吓】【了】【一】【跳】，【急】【忙】【放】【下】【剑】【查】【看】【他】【的】【伤】【口】。 【姜】【灼】【衣】【没】【想】【到】【檀】【渊】【会】【帮】【她】【接】【下】【那】【一】【剑】，【有】【些】【感】【动】【又】【有】【些】【担】【心】。 【她】【推】【开】【碍】【事】【的】【妃】【卿】，【握】【住】【檀】【渊】【的】【手】【轻】【轻】【催】【动】【口】【诀】，【不】【一】【会】【儿】，【一】【群】【萤】【火】【虫】【便】【停】【留】【在】【他】【的】【手】【上】【为】【他】【修】【复】【伤】【口】。 【檀】【渊】【静】【静】【地】【看】【着】【姜】【灼】【衣】，【她】【的】【卷】【翘】【的】【睫】【毛】【低】【垂】，【认】【真】【地】【盯】
“【你】【怎】【么】【会】【变】【成】【这】【个】【样】【子】？”【林】【晨】【错】【愕】【地】【看】【着】【面】【前】【盘】【坐】【在】【地】【的】【義】【妃】，【不】，【应】【该】【说】【是】【师】【妃】【暄】。 【義】【妃】【抬】【眼】【看】【着】【林】【晨】【的】【错】【愕】【的】【模】【样】，【笑】【道】：“【没】【办】【法】，【遇】【到】【一】【个】【不】【讲】【理】【的】【女】【人】，【耽】【搁】【了】【一】【点】【时】【间】，【正】【好】【遇】【到】【此】【人】【濒】【死】，【所】【以】【我】【就】【只】【好】【跟】【她】【合】【体】。【这】【样】【她】【能】【够】【继】【续】【活】【下】【去】，【我】【也】【有】【身】【体】【了】。” “【那】【以】【后】【你】【打】【算】【怎】【么】【办】？”
【这】【这】【这】，【刚】【刚】【还】【在】【这】【里】【的】【人】，【怎】【么】【这】【就】【踪】【影】【全】【无】【了】？！ “【奇】【怪】【了】” 【女】【子】【不】【由】【得】【一】【脸】【疑】【惑】，【却】【不】【知】【身】【后】【有】【一】【只】【手】【正】【在】【慢】【慢】【靠】【近】，【啪】【嗒】【一】【下】，【落】【在】【了】【她】【的】【肩】【头】。 “【嘿】！” “【啊】！” 【感】【受】【到】【肩】【膀】【处】【的】【力】【道】，【女】【子】【心】【里】“【咯】【噔】”【一】【下】，【惊】【跳】【而】【起】，【耳】【边】【却】【响】【起】【一】【阵】【似】【在】【玩】【笑】【般】【的】【声】【音】。 “
【推】【荐】【新】【书】~ 【笔】【名】：【茶】【啾】【啾】 【简】【介】：【西】【拾】【身】【负】【许】【愿】【系】【统】，【要】【达】【成】【某】【人】【的】【三】【个】【愿】【望】。 【他】【的】【声】【音】【如】【沐】【春】【风】：“【西】【西】，【我】【要】【你】【将】【我】【的】【期】【愿】【永】【记】【心】【底】，【那】【是】【我】【此】【生】【的】【最】【为】【珍】【贵】。” 【他】【的】【唇】【角】【肆】【意】【张】【狂】：“【小】【家】【伙】，【别】【忘】【了】【你】【答】【应】【我】【什】【么】，【要】【是】【你】【做】【不】【到】，【哪】【怕】【海】【角】【天】【涯】，【我】【都】【会】【将】【你】【追】【回】。” 【他】【的】【眸】【子】【漆】【黑】【如】【墨】宝莲灯心水论坛11654【百】【里】【金】【焱】【低】【头】【想】【整】【理】【一】【下】【衣】【服】，【见】【一】【身】【衣】【衫】【已】【残】【破】【不】【堪】，【不】【忍】【入】【眼】【的】【移】【开】【目】【光】，【道】：“【走】【了】【走】【了】，【我】【回】【去】【了】。” 【百】【里】【金】【焱】【身】【形】【一】【闪】【离】【开】【了】，【上】【官】【敏】【儿】【的】【目】【光】【追】【着】【他】，【想】【说】【什】【么】，【但】【没】【来】【得】【及】【出】【口】【百】【里】【金】【焱】【就】【不】【见】【了】。 【上】【官】【婵】【抬】【头】，【看】【向】【立】【在】【屋】【顶】【上】【的】【少】【邪】，【目】【光】【略】【扫】【过】【站】【在】【他】【身】【后】【的】【九】【初】，【顿】【了】【一】【下】，【似】【乎】【有】【一】
“【是】【我】，【我】【是】【肖】【锐】……”【肖】【锐】【下】【意】【识】【的】【回】【答】【了】【对】【方】【的】【询】【问】。 【不】【知】【为】【什】【么】，【肖】【锐】【似】【乎】【对】【于】【这】【个】【突】【然】【出】【现】【的】【宇】【宙】【飞】【船】【及】【其】【驾】【驶】【者】【并】【没】【有】【什】【么】【防】【备】【心】【理】，【反】【倒】【是】【有】【种】【奇】【怪】【的】【信】【任】【感】，【虽】【然】【他】【并】【不】【知】【道】【这】【种】【感】【觉】【到】【底】【来】【自】【何】【处】。 【难】【道】，【来】【自】【于】【一】【种】“【认】【同】【感】”？【来】【自】【一】【种】【毫】【无】【缘】【由】【的】【信】【任】？ 【因】【为】，【肖】【锐】【隐】【约】【觉】【得】【那】【艘】
【在】【波】【涛】【城】【中】，【白】【凡】【一】【呆】【就】【是】【一】【周】【的】【时】【间】。 【这】【期】【间】。 【整】【个】【波】【涛】【城】【中】【的】【偷】【鸡】【摸】【狗】【之】【辈】【感】【觉】【自】【己】【是】【倒】【了】【八】【辈】【子】【血】【霉】，【一】【偷】【东】【西】【就】【会】【被】【盯】【上】，【不】【偷】【的】【话】，【白】【凡】【直】【接】【偷】【了】【塞】【到】【他】【们】【手】【里】，【然】【后】【光】【明】【正】【大】【地】【抓】【他】【们】。 【就】【算】【是】【没】【被】【抓】【到】【现】【行】【的】【小】【偷】【流】【氓】【也】【没】【被】【放】【过】，【反】【正】【只】【要】【是】【白】【凡】【知】【道】【了】【的】，【都】【给】【抓】【出】【来】【打】【一】【顿】。 【也】